Caldwell county is in the Pennyrile region of Kentucky. The elevation in the county ranges from 339 to 767 feet above sea level.
It was formed in 1809 from Livingston county. The county seat is Princeton. Caldwell county was a source of Trigg (1820), Calloway (1821), Graves (1821), Hickman (1821), and Lyon (1854) counties.
In 2020 the county population was 12,649 in a land area of 344.79 square miles, an average of 36.7 people per square mile.
The equine population was 1,600 in the 2012 Kentucky Equine Survey.
Caldwell county is in the Pennyrile Area Development District.
Caldwell county was named to honor John Caldwell, who served in the state senate and as lieutenant governor.
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